During the COVID-19 pandemic Professor Ishaque is still able to offer remote consultations and treatment to those suffering from back pain and leg pain. Please contact us for further details.

About the spine

The 5 sections of the spine

The cervical spine makes up the neck and has 7 vertebrae.

The thoracic spine has 12 vertebrae which the ribs attach to.

The lumbar spine has 5 vertebrae which make the lower back.

The sacrum consists of 5 bones which are fused or stuck together, plus the coccyx which is made up of 4 tiny bones and used to be a tail.

Intervertebral discs

Each vertebra is separated by intervertebral discs which are flexible cartilage discs. These allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing or cushioning function as well.

The spine is made up of 33 vertebrae and has 5 sections as illustrated.

Each disc is made up of two parts, a tougher fibrous outside and a central substance called nucleus pulposus. When a disc is damaged (or prolapsed) it is the squidgy liquid in the middle which often squeezes out, putting pressure on the spinal cord and causing pain.